Mermi Çekirdekleri-Bullets

http://www.kemalelitemiz.com/mermi-cekirdekleri-bullets.html

BULLET (MERMİ ÇEKİRDEĞİ)

1500 Yıllarında barutun keşfi ile bir ucu kapalı bir silindire konan barutun önüne, taş ve parçalı metaller konularak ateşleniyordu mermi çekirdeğinin gelişimi böyle başladı.1800 yıllarına kadar, büyük bir değişiklik olmadı. Külçe kurşunlar basit metotlarla yuvarlanmış olarak kullanılıyordu. Bunlara yuvarlatılmış kurşun toplar denildi. Fransızca da küçük toplara boulette deniliyordu. bullet ismini bundan aldı.1823 yılında İngiliz ordusu subayı Yüzbaşı JOHN NORTON yuvarlak kurşun topunu şekillendirdi. Yuvarlak kurşunu uydu böylece patlama esnasında basınçla kurşun namluya iyice sıkışıyor ve uzuyordu. Bunlara Norton’s bullet dendi.1836 da İngiliz silahçı William greener norton un mermisinin arkasına barutun önüne tahtadan yuvarlak tıpa koydu. Ve merminin hızını artırdı fakat bu kullanışlı olmadı zira iki parçadan oluşuyordu.1847 de Fransız Claude Etienne Minie Nortonun tahta tıpasının yerine kurşunun içindeki deliğe oturarak sabitlenmiş metal bir kapak kullandı. 1855 de İngilizler bu mermiyi kendi tüfekleri olan Enfield tüfeklerine adapte ettiler. Amerikan sivil savaşında Minie’nin mermilerini atan bu tüfekler kullanıldı.1854–1857 de Sir. Joseph Whitworth, 1862 ve sonrasında, W. E. Metford mermiyi geliştirdiler nihayet Lee Metford 1888 Aralığında ilk 0.303’’ küçük kalibre max 1 mermisini Lee Enfield tüfeğine uyarladı.
Önceleri kara barut un yanması ve sürtünen kurşunun namlu içine sıvanması ile 10 – 15 atış sonrası namlu tıkanıyor ve atış imkânsız hale geliyordu. Bu tıkanmayı bir miktar azaltır düşüncesi ile namlulara yiv set açmayı düşündüler yiv setler namlu tıkanmasına çare olmasa da yuvarlak mermi çekirdeklerinin eksenleri etrafında dönerek daha düzgün ve uzun mesafeye gitmesini sağladı yivsetin keşfi silahlarda çığır açtı. Barutun saflaştırılması saf kurşun çekirdeğinin metalle kaplanması, (ağızotu) denilen ön ateşleme kapsülünün keşfi, mermilerin hızını ve enerjisini artırdı.

FMJ – standart hardball bullet-standart sert top tüm metal kaplama mermi

1 – metal jacket-metal kaplama        2 – lead core—kurşun öz

Mermi çekirdekleri önceleri saf kurşundan yapılıyordu kurşunun yumuşak bir metal olması çabuk deformasyon olması, namlu içine sıvanması ve seri atışlarda problem çıkarması ile metal kaplama mermi çekirdekleri doğdu. Bunlara FMJ (Full Metal jaceted) dendi. Bu mermilerin saf kurşun çekirdeklere göre daha delici olduğu da görüldü. Ne var ki polislerin ve güvenlik güçlerinin şehir içi ve dar alanlarda bu mermileri kullandıkları zaman bu mermiler metal ve sert zeminde sekiyor istenmeyen yaralanmalara sebep oluyordu. Delici oldukları için çok önemli anlarda durdurucu etkisi olmuyor güvenlik güçleri can kaybına uğruyordu. Bunun üzerine yarı metal kaplama ve çukur uçlu mermiler yapıldı bu mermiler temas ettiği yerde yassılaşıyor ve tesir güçleri artıyordu ayrıca sert zeminlerde sekmesi de ortadan kalkmış oluyordu.
JHP – Jacketed Hollow Point- metal kaplama delik uçlu
1 – metal jacket-metal kaplama 2 – lead-kurşun
3 – expansive hole-genişleyen delik 4 steel core-çelik öz


Lead WadCutter – Target bullet- kurşun kâğıt kesici hedef mermisi

Hydrashock – commercial JHP bullet Yüksek tesir amaçlı Hücreler arası sıvı basınclı metal ceketli delik uçlu mermi
1 – metal jacket-metal kaplama

2 – lead-kurşun
3 – expansive hole-genişleyen delik
4 – steel core-çelik öz
GLASER SAFETY SLUG

THV – “Tres Haute Vitesse” – “Very High Speed” (French) yüksek hızlı hafif zırh deliciAluminyum kaplamalı sertleştirilmiş çelik dolgulu rus çizimi 9 mm çaplı silahlar için 9x18mm Makarov PBM ve9x21mm SP-10. Tabancalar için üretilmiş.

Mermi çekirdeklerinin kurşundan yapılması ve çok tüketilmesi ve kurşun madeninin doğada uzun süre ağır metal zehirlenmesine yol açması çevrecileri harekete geçirdi. Aynı ağırlık ve direncine sahip, doğa dostu malzeme arayışları devam ediyor ABD 2008 yılından itibaren üretilen mermilerin bu yeni malzemeden yapılmasına karar verdi.
Bullet acronyms (mermilerin baş harfleri)
• AP — Armor Piercing (has a steel or other hard metal core)
• Zırh delici (merminin içinde çelik veya sert metal çekirdek vardır)
• ACC — Accelerator (hızlandırıcı)
• BBWC — Bevel Base Wadcutter
• Kesik uçlu hedef atış mermisidir.
• DEWC — Double Ended Wadcutter
• Çift kertikli hedef atış mermisi
• HBWC — Hollow Base Wadcutter
• Delik kaideli hedef atış mermisi
• BT — Boat-Tail
• Kayık biçimi
• BTHP — Boat Tail Hollow Point
• Kayık biçimli delik uçlu
Bullet –MFG- Bullet Manufacturing Companies –MERMİ ÜRETEN FİRMALAR
TAP— FPD –Tactical Application for Police” —For Personal Defense ( Hornady’s
Polislerin taktik kullanımı için—-şahsi savunma amaçlı
• CB — Cast Bullet
• Döküm çekirdek
• CL — Core-Lokt

• FMJ — Full Metal Jacket
• Tüm metal kaplama
• FN — Flat Nose
• Düz burun
• FP — Flat Point
• Düz uç
• FST — Fail Safe Talon
• GD — Gold Dot
• Altın nokta
• GDHP — Gold Dot Hollow Point
• Altın nokta delik uç
• GS — Golden Saber
• Altın kılıç
• HC — Hard Cast
• Sert döküm
• HP — Hollow Point
• Delik uçlu
• HPJ — High Performance Jacketed
• Yüksek performanslı metal kaplamalı
• HS — Hydra Shok
• Doku sıvısı basınçlı
• J — Jacketed
• Metal kaplamalı
• JFP — Jacketed Flat Point
• Metal kaplamalı düz uçlu
• JHC — Jacketed Hollow Cavity
• Metal kaplamalı çukur uçlu
• JHP — Jacketed Hollow Point
• Metal kaplamalı delik uçlu
• JSP — Jacketed Soft Point
• Metal kaplamalı yumuşak (ham kurşun )uçlu
• L — Lead
• Saf Kurşun metali
• L-T — Lead Combat
• Saf kurşun savaş
• L-T — Lead Target
• Saf kurşun hedef
• LFN — Long Flat Nose
• Uzun düz burun
• LFP — Lead Flat Point
• Ham kursun düz uclu
• LHP — Lead Hollow Point
• Ham kurşun delik uçlu
• LRN — Lead Round Nose
• Ham kurşun yuvarlak uçlu
• LSWC — Lead Semi-Wadcutter
• Yarım kurşun hedef mermisi
• LSWC-GC — Lead Semi-Wadcutter Gas Checked
• LWC — Lead WadCutter
• LTC — Lead Truncated Cone
• MC — Metal Cased
• MRWC — Mid-Range Wadcutter
• +P — Plus P (10-15% overpressure)
• +P+ — Plus P Plus (20-25% overpressure)
• PB — Lead Bullet
• Ham kurşun mermi
• PB — Parabellum
• PL — Power-Lokt
• PSP — Plated Soft Point
• PSP — Pointed Soft Point
• RN — Round Nose
• RNFP — Round Nose Flat Point
• RNL — Round Nosed Lead
• SJ — Semi Jacketed
• Yarı metal kaplama
• SJHP — Semi Jacketed Hollow Point
• Yarı metal kaplama delik uçlu
• SJSP — Semi-Jacketed Soft Point
• Yarı metal kaplama yumuşak uçlu
• SP — Soft Point
• Yumuşak uçlu
• SP — Spire Point
• Sivri uçlu
• SPTZ — Spitzer
• Şiş uçlu
• ST — Silver Tip
• Gümüş tip
• STHP — Silver Tip Hollow Point
• Gümüş tip delik uçlu
• SWC — Semi Wadcutter
• SX — Super Explosive
• SXT — Supreme Expansion Talon
• TC — Truncated Cone
• TMJ — Total Metal Jacket
• VLD — Very Low Drag
• WC — Wadcutter
• WLN — Wide Long Nose
• WSM — Winchester Short Magnum
• WSSM — Winchester Super Short Magnum
• XTP — Extreme Terminal Performance

– Lead is abbreviated Pb from its latin name ‘plumbum.’ Pb might also be used (on cartridge cases rather than bullets) as an abbreviation for

J is usually Jacketed. P is usually Point. S might be Soft, Semi, Spire,
or Spitzer.

This is not a complete list, but you get the idea. From here you can
cut and paste your favorite bullet shape, like maybe SWCHP
(Semi-WadCutter Hollow Point) or JHPBTS (Jacketed Hollow Point
Boat-Tailed Spitzer.)

Bullet and cartridge companies have also introduced some creative new
names for bullets in an effort to distinguish their products from those
of other companies. These are generally used to describe a particular
product, rather than the general bullet construction. For example,
Remington’s Golden Sabre bullets would rightly be described as JHP
(Jacketed Hollow Point), however, they have chosen to label them HPJ
(High Performance Jacketed) instead. A partial listing of these fancy
new acronyms includes:

HPJ – Remington High Performance Jacketed (Golden Sabre)
ACC – Remington ACCelerator
CL or PL – Remington Core-Lokt or Power-Lokt
XTP – Hornady eXtreme Terminal Performance
L-C/T – Hornady Lead Combat/Target
SX – Hornady Super eXplosive
GDHP – Speer Gold Dot Hollow Point
STHP – Winchester Silver Tip Hollow Point
FST – Winchester Fail Safe Talon (Black Talon)
SXT – Winchester Supreme eXpansion Talon (Black Talon)
Acronym or abbreviation (Examples)

ACP – Automatic Colt Pistol (.45 ACP, .32 ACP)
AE – Action Express (.41 AE, .50 AE)
BR – Bench Rest Remington (6mm BR, 7mm BR)
B&D – Bain and Davis (.357/44 B&D)
G&A – Guns & Ammo Magazine (.40 G&A, .460 G&A)
H&H – Holland & Holland (.375 H&H)
H&R – Harrington & Richardson (.32 H&R Mag.)
IHMSA – International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Assoc.(7mm IHMSA)
JDJ – J. D. Jones (.375 JDJ)
JRS – John R. Sundra (7mm JRS)
LC – Long Colt (.38 LC)

LR – Long Rifle (.22 LR)
Mag – Magnum (.357 Mag, .44 Mag)
mm – millimeter (10mm, 7mm Mag)
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (7.62 NATO, 5.56
Para. (sometimes Pb) – Parabellum (9mm Para.)
PPC – Pindell-Palmisano Cartridge (.22 PPC, 6mm PPC)
Rem – Remington (.223 Rem, .35 Rem)
Ren – Charles Rensing & Jim Rock (.270 Ren)
RF – RimFire- kenar ateşlemeli (.22 RF)
Spl. – Special (.38 Spl. .32 Win Spl.)
Sprg. – Springfield Armory (.30-06 Sprg.)
S&H – Sharpe & Hart (7×61 S&H)
S&W – Smith & Wesson (.40 S&W, .32 S&W)
STA – Shooting Times Alaskan
STE – Shooting Times Easterner
STW – Shooting Times Westerner (7mm STW)
TCU – Thompson/Center and (Wes) Ugalde (7mm TCU, 6mm TCU)
TSW – Team Smith & Wesson (.356 TSW)
WCF – Winchester Center Fire (.25-20 WCF, .32-20 WCF)
Win – Winchester (.308 Win, .32 Win Spl.)
WMR – Winchester Magnum Rimfire (.22 WMR)
– 7.62 NATO and .308 Win are equivalent.
– 5.56 NATO and .223 Remington are equivalent.

– From a latin expression “si vis pacem, para bellum,” meaning,
“if you would have peace, prepare for war.”
– 9mm Para., 9mm Luger, 9mm NATO, and 9x19mm all use equivalent
cases, however, 9mm NATO military ammunition is loaded to
substantially higher pressures than most commercial varieties.
– .22 RF usually refers to one or more of: .22 Short, .22 Long,
and .22 LR.
– Wildcat cartridges developed by Shooting Times Magazine/Layne
Simpson. P and +P+ Used in Cartridge Names
GSSF – Glock Sport Shooting Foundation (for Glock owners who don’t
want to compete with, and risk being beaten by, owners of
another brand of gun. :-) chuckle…
IBS – International Benchrest Shooter
IMR – Improved Military Rifle (Originally, DuPont’s name for some of
its canister powders.)
IPSC – International Practical Shooting Confederation, see info. in
Section IX.B.
NBRSA – National Bench Rest Shooters Association
NRA – National Rifle Association, read about why you should
join the NRA.
NRMA – National Reloading Manufacturers Association
NSSF – National Shooting Sports Foundation
SAAMI – Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute
USPSA – United States Practical Shooting Association

AARTY Army artillery
ADAM Artillery delivered antipersonnel mine
AJHP Aluminium Jacketed Hollow Point ( Bullet )
ALICE All-purpose lightweight individual carrying equipment
AM Amplitude modulation
AO Area of Operations
AP Antipersonnel OR armour piercing
APFT Army physical fitness test
APICM Antipersonnel improved conventional ammunition
ARNG Army National Guard
ART Adjustable ranging telescope
ARTEP Army training and evaluation program
ATB Appears to be
BC Ballistic Coefficient
BDU Battle dress uniform
BMNT Beginning morning nautical twilight
BMG Browning Machine Gun
BPE Black Powder Express
BRASS Breathe, relax, aim, slack, squeeze
BT Boat Tail ( Bullet )
°C Degrees Centigrade
C2 Command and control
CA Civil Affairs
CALFEX Combined arms live-fire exercise
CARVER Criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, recognizability
CAS Close air support
CBT Combating terrorism
CF Centerfire
CLP Cleaner, lubricant, preservative
CP Command post OR Concrete piercing
CQ Close quarters
CSAR Combat search and rescue
CT Counter-terrorism
CUP Copper Units of Pressure
DA Department of the Army: direct action
DOD Department of Defence
DTG Date-time-group
DPICM Dual-purpose improved conventional ammunition
DZ Drop zone
E&E Escape and evasion
ECM Electronic countermeasures
EDGE Emergency deployment readiness exercise
EEI Essentials elements of information
EENT Ending evening nautical twilight
EPW Enemy prisoner of war
ER Eye Relief
ERP End-route rally point
F Fahrenheit
FDC Fire direction center
FEBA Forward edge of the battle area
FFP Forward firing position or Final Firing Position
FID Foreign internal defence
FLOT Forward line of troops
FM Frequency modulation
FMJ Full Metal Jacket ( Bullet )
FN Fabrique Nationale OR Flat Nose ( Bullet )
FO Forward observer
Fps Feet per second
ft/lbs Foot Pounds
FTX Field training exercise
GP General purpose
GPS Global positioning system
GR Grain
GW Guerrilla warfare
HA Humanitarian assistance
HE High explosive
HELR High-efficiency, low-reflection
HF High frequency
HP Hollowpoint ( Bullet )
HPBT Hollow-point Boat Tail ( Bullet )
HUMINT Human intelligence
IAD Immediate action drills
IAW In accordance with
IR Information requirement
IRP Initial rally point
JHP Jacketed Hollow Point ( Bullet )
KIM Keep in memory. Exercise game named after the Rudyard Kipling Novel of the same name
LBE Load-bearing equipment
LE Law Enforcement
LOC Lines of communication
LOS Line of sight
LR Laser range finder
LSA Lubricating oil, weapons, semi-fluid
LSR Light sniper rifle
LZ Landing zone
Mag Magnum
ME Muzzle energy
MEDEVAC Medical evacuation
METL Mission-essential task list
METT-TC Mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time available, and civilians
MILES Multiple integrated laser engagement system
mm Millimeter
MMPI Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory
MOA Minute of angle (1.0472″ at 100 yards)
MOPP Mission oriented protective posture
MOUT Military operations on urbanized terrain
MPH Miles per hour
MRE Meals, ready to eat
MRT Mid Range trajectory
MSR Main supply route
MSS Mission support site
MTP Mission training plan
MTT Mobile training team
NBC Nuclear, biological, chemical
NCO Non-commissioned officer
NE Nitro express
NGF Naval gunfire
NOD Night observation device
NSN National stock number
NVD Night vision device
O/U Over-and-under
O-T Observer-target
OAL Overall Length
OCOKA Observation and fire, concealment and cover, obstacles, key terrain, and avenues of approach
OIR Other intelligence requirements
OP Observation post
OPCON Operational control
OPFOR Opposing forces
OPORD Operation order
OPSEC Operations security
ORP Objective rally point
P50 Platoon sergeant
PD Point-detonating
PFC Private first class
PIR Priority intelligence requirement
POA Point of aim
POC Point of contact
PoH/PH Probability of Hit
POI Point of impact OR program of instruction
PRC Populace and resources control
PSG Platoon sergeant
PSP Pointed Soft Point ( Bullet )
PSS Police Sharp Shooter
PSYOP Psychological operations
PZ Pickup zone
QRF Quick-reaction force
RAMS Remote anti-armour mine system
RAP Rear area protection OR Rocket assisted projectile
RBC Rifle bore cleaner
RECONREP Reconnaissance report
RF Rimfire OR Radio frequency
RFA Restrictive fire area
RGT Running Game Target
RN Round Nose ( Bullet )
ROE Rules of engagement
RSTA Reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition
S1 Adjutant
S2 Intelligence officer
S3 Operations and training officer
S4 Supply officer
SAAMI Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers’ Institute
SA Security assistant
SALUTE Size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment
SAR Search and rescue
SAW Squad automatic weapon
SCBS Shooter’s Choice Bore Solvent
SD Sectional Density
SEO Sniper employment officer
SFC Sergeant first class
SGT Sergeant
SHELREP Shelling report
SIR Specific information requirements
SITREP Situation report
SM Smoke munitions
SO Special operations
SOF Special operations forces
SOI Signal operation instructions
SOP Standing operating procedure
SOTIC Special Operations Target Interdiction Course
SP Spire Point ( Bullet )
SPC Specialist
SPIES Special patrol insertion/extraction system
SPOTREP Spot report
SR Special reconnaissance
SSO Sunrise/sunset overlay
STAB System for extracting personnel by helicopter
STANAG Standardization agreement
STANO Surveillance, target acquisition, and night observation
STX Situational training exercise
SWAT Special Weapons And Tactics
SWS Sniper Weapon System
TAC Tactical air command
TC Training circular
TFFP Tentative final firing position
TM Technical manual
TOC Tactical operations centre
TOW Tube-launched, optically tracked wire-guided missile
TRC Training readiness condition
TAP Target reference point
UKD Unknown Distance
U.S. United States
USAF United States Air Force
USAR United States Army Reserve
USASFC United States Army Special Forces Command
USC United States Code
USMC United States Marine Corps
USN United States Navy
UW Unconventional warfare
VLD Very Low Drag ( Bullet )
WP White phosphorus
Rifle Bullet Diameter List
The following list shows correct bullet diameters in thousandths of an inch and rifle cartridges that use bullets of each diameter. For an expanded list showing more bullet diameters and more calibers see the “Expanded Rifle Bullet Diameter List” on the Tables, Charts and Lists Page.
• .172″ – .17 HMR
• .223″ – .22 Short, Long, Long Rifle
• .224″ – .22 WMR, .222 Remington, .223 Remington, .22-250 Varminter, .223 WSSM
• .243″ – .243 Winchester, 6mm Remington, .243 WSSM, .240 Wby. Mag.
• .257″ – .25-06, .257 Wby. Mag.
• .264″ – 6.5×55, .260 Remington, .264 Win. Mag.
• .277″ – .270 Winchester, .270 WSM, .270 Wby. Mag.
• .284″ – 7mm-08 Remington, 7×57 Mauser, .280 Remington, 7mm Mag. (all)
• .308″ – .30 Carbine, .30-30, .300 Savage, .308 Winchester, .30-06, .300 Mag. (all)
• .311″ – 7.62×39 Soviet, .303 British
• .321″ – .32 Winchester Special
• .323″ – 8x57JS Mauser
• .338″ – .338-57 O’Connor, .338 Mag. (all), .340 Wby. Mag.
• .358″ – .357 Magnum, .35 Remington, .35 Whelen, .350 Rem. Mag.
• .375″ – .375 Mag. (all), .378 Wby. Mag.
• .416″ – .416 Rigby, .416 Rem. Mag., .416 Wby. Mag.
• .429″ – .44 Rem. Mag., .444 Marlin
• .458″ – .45-70, .450 Marlin, .458 Win. Mag., .460 Wby. Mag.

Yorum Yaz